The purpose of this Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) is to provide a strategic framework for the sustainable management of municipal waste in Carmarthenshire, both in the short and long term. This document is intended to act as a working document for Council officers as well as providing a source of relevant information and a focus for debate for all stakeholders.


The specific objectives of this Strategy are

To produce a working document that provides a strategic framework for the sustainable management of municipal waste in Carmarthenshire.

To review the current service provision in terms of current and pending legislation and targets, and highlight areas for improvement.

Consider available options to develop the current service and recommend the most suitable options in the short-to-medium and the long-term.

To take account of the Best Practicable Environmental Option in all areas.

To provide a focus for debate for all stakeholders in waste management, including council officers and members, community groups and individual citizens.

To make an annual critique of the working document in order to retain flexibility; allow for changes in legislation and government policy; changes in practical arrangements; and new developments in technology.

Structure of the Strategy

The Strategy has been prepared with direction from the DETR document, `Guidance on Municipal Waste Management Strategies' (March 2001) and the National Assembly document `Managing Waste Sustainably - A consultation document' (July 2001). The National Assembly is due to publish a Waste Strategy Guidance document in 2002, if available this will be taken into account in the first annual report. Subsequent official literature will be taken into account in all reviews.

The IWMS covers all aspects of municipal waste management. It includes a chapter on each important area to be considered from waste reduction at source to management of clinical waste and fly-tipping. It is vital to remember however, that as an integrated strategy, divisions have been made only to facilitate management and understanding: The complete picture should always be taken into account.

Within each area, consideration has been taken of,

Current service provision;

Relevant National and European legislation;

National policies;

Relevant Best Practise and Best Value targets;

Options for meeting targets;

Partnerships with other Local Authorities, Community Groups and organisations;

Best Practicable Environmental Option; and

Suitable proposals and policies.

This IWMS supersedes the `Summary report on a proposed integrated waste management partnership for Carmarthenshire' (Carmarthenshire County Council, June 1999). It covers the period 2001-2005.

An annual review will take place to account for changes in current service provision, legislation, technology, best practise and best value. A detailed policy review will take place in 2005.


Current Arrangements

Household Refuse

Refuse is collected directly from about 77,000 households in Carmarthenshire. Currently rubbish is put out for collection in black sacks, provided by the Authority or 90-litre bins. Green waste is not permitted in normal refuse bags, and green sacks or labels must be purchased from the Council for disposal of this waste. Waste is collected from the curtilage of the property unless there are access difficulties. The elderly and registered disabled can request a back-door collection.

In 2000/01 nearly 66 thousand tonnes of refuse were collected from households in Carmarthenshire, this equates to nearly a tonne of rubbish per household in one year. Collection of refuse costs the Council almost three million pounds a year, which is paid through the Council Tax.

In 2001, Consultants undertook an analysis of typical household waste collected in the County; the results of the analysis are shown in Figure 2-1 below. They indicate that around 70% of the refuse collected in Carmarthenshire could be recycled or recovered as compost. Some of these wastes may be grossly contaminated and be unsuitable for recycling, however this still allows for a significant fraction of refuse which could be diverted from landfill.

Figure Error! Style not defined.-Error! Bookmark not defined.: Composition of Carmarthenshire's household waste

The Council can also arrange for the collection and disposal of bulky household goods, such as furniture and white electrical goods (fridges, freezers etc). An average of one in eight households has used this service, with some 11,000 collections made in 2000/01. The Council incurs an average cost of £20 per bulky collection, which equates to about £2.50 each year for every household in Carmarthenshire. For larger quantities of waste the Authority provides a subsidised skip service.

General household refuse, bulky waste, DIY waste, garden waste, recyclable materials and small amounts of some hazardous wastes can also be taken to one of the three Civic Amenity (CA) sites in the area. These are located at Trostre, near Llanelli, Nantycaws near Carmarthen, and Wernddu, near Ammanford. Trostre also accepts small amounts of trade waste for a nominal fee.


In 2000/2001 the Authority achieved a recycling rate 8.71%. The recycling rate is the tonnage of waste recycled divided by total tonnage of municipal waste collected. Recyclable waste was collected through the network of 57 Bring Banks site and the facilities provided at the Civic Amenity (CA) sites. Figure 2-2 details quantities of materials recycled 1999/2000 and 2000/2001.

Figure Error! Style not defined.-Error! Bookmark not defined.: Materials recycled in Carmarthenshire 1999-2001


All three civic amenity sites currently operating have green waste skips, into which the public can segregate garden wastes. In 2000/01 nearly 1500 tonnes of green waste were segregated in this way and recycled, this is about 2% of the whole municipal waste stream. A new composting plant has recently been commissioned at the Nantycaws site; it has the capacity to compost 3000 tonnes of green waste per year.

Home composting has also been actively promoted in the County: A collaborative campaign has been in place since 2000, in partnership with neighbouring local authorities and local community groups. Residents are able purchase a compost bin or wormery at a fraction of the normal retail price and over 1000 bins were issued in 2000/01.

Clinical Waste

Householders and care-homes that generate clinical waste in Carmarthenshire are offered an on-demand service for specialist collection in yellow bags or yellow sharps boxes, which are provided. These are then taken for professional disposal, usually by incineration. Demand for this service has increased in recent years leading to a requirement for increased budget allocation. Approximately 230 bags of clinical waste were collected in 2000/01, from around 600 households. It is estimated that the number of householders requiring the service may increase to approximately 500-1000 in the next few years.

Hazardous Waste

There are a number of household wastes that are hazardous in nature. These should not be disposed of with the normal household refuse, but should be separated and collected separately to minimise risk to human health and damage to the environment.

Batteries: There is a collection point at all three civic amenity sites for collection of vehicle batteries. The Authority does not currently have facility to collect other types of batteries.

Chemicals: There is provision at the Wernddu CA site for collection of small amounts of household chemicals and paints. Chemicals permitted include labelled, off-the-shelf pesticides etc. Where a householder has large amounts of chemicals to dispose of they should call the Authority for advice. Usually, the Authority will require a detailed list of chemicals to be disposed of which will then be referred to a local contractor. Removal of special wastes by a specialist contractor incurs significant cost to the Authority, for this reason householders are usually charged a nominal fee for this service.

Oils: All three CA sites have collection points for used motor oils. All oils collected in banks are recycled.

Asbestos: Small amounts of bound asbestos (tiles, etc) can be accepted at the Wernddu CA site, provided they are double-bagged. Larger amounts (<1 tonne) can be taken direct to the landfill at Nantycaws where a nominal fee of £10 is charged.

Non-household Municipal Waste

In addition to household waste, the Local Authority is also responsible for providing a collection and disposal service for some elements not classed as household waste. This includes commercial and industrial wastes, abandoned cars and fly-tipped wastes, litter, dog-fouling and beach cleaning.

The Authority currently collects waste from about 1600 commercial premises in the county. All waste must be contained in special wheeled bins or in orange bags purchased from the Council. Charging is based on size of container supplied and number of collections per week.

Fly tipping and abandoned cars are a significant problem in the County with 845 cases of abandoned cars in 2000/01 costing the Authority some £30 000. In addition, 860 cases of illicit tipping were handled in 2000/01. CCTV has recently been installed in trouble-spot areas to aid the Authority in clamping down on this activity.

Areas for Action!

The are a number of areas where the Authority can improve their services in terms of Best Value, environmental benefit, meeting targets and in response to changing legislation:

Refinement of collection service across the County.

The refuse collection service can be improved through provision of wheeled bins to the whole county and reviewing collection round efficiency.

Reduce costs associated with excess waste services.

Currently the bulky waste collection service and subsidised skip service incur considerable cost to the Authority. Promoting increased use of Civic Amenity facilities may reduce costs: In addition, the charging scheme for these services needs to be re-examined.

Improve Civic Amenity site provision across the County.

At present there is a lack of Civic Amenity facilities in the North and East of the County. It is considered that this disparity can be reduced through provision of three further sites to serve these areas.

Improve on current recycling rate.

Higher recycling rates can be achieved by offering recycling services for more materials and improving bulky waste reuse and recycling. Adding convenience to householders can also improve rates; kerbside and door to door collection schemes will be investigated and implemented.

Continue to develop biodegradable waste composting facilities in the County.

The current facility at Nantycaws has capacity to compost around 4% of the County's municipal waste; about 2% was composted in 2000/01. Biodegradable wastes make up at least 40% of Carmarthenshire's household waste and there is therefore significant room for development in this area. Kerbside collection of organic wastes will be investigated and implemented.

Review trade waste service

Commercial viability of the service needs to be improved and a specialist collection service for recyclables will be investigated.

Develop hazardous waste service as legislation requires

Legislation defining the collection and treatment of hazardous wastes is currently undergoing change in the UK. Local Authority services will need to be updated in line with these changes. In the first instance, provision of bring facilities at all CA sites requires review. A standardised approach to subsidising collection services for large amounts of hazardous waste will be developed.

Continue to improve situation with regard to illicit tipping, litter and abandoned cars.

Waste dumping is a significant problem in the County, the Authority will continue to work to prevent dumping in the first instance and to prosecute offenders. Efficiency with which fly-tipped wastes are cleared can also be improved.



In 2000/01 Carmarthenshire generated 84,287 tonnes of municipal waste, and of this 78,767 tonnes were landfilled. Aside from disposal costs paid to the landfill operator, the Authority paid nearly 950 thousand pounds in landfill tax alone. Currently the cost of landfill tax is £12 per tonne and is rising at £1 a year, and is set to increase at this rate until 2005.

Beyond this time it is unclear how tax rises will be calculated, but if it continues to rise at £1 a year, and we deposit the same amount of waste to landfill, the Authority could be paying over £2.5 million in landfill tax alone by 2025.

In addition to cost pressures, implementation of the Landfill Directive will restrict types and amounts of waste that can be landfilled. With particular relevance to Municipal waste, the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled will have to be significantly reduced in the future, landfill of hazardous wastes will also be restricted.


It is clear that continued disposal of large volumes of waste to landfill is not sustainable, and needs to be reduced to meet the requirements of national and European legislation; The Authority will continue to develop initiatives to divert waste away from landfill, focusing on waste reduction, reuse, recycling and composting in the short to medium term. In the long-term, the Authority realises there is likely to be a need for development of energy recovery in the County.

Even after implementation of intensive recycling and composting schemes, there is going to be a large portion of the waste stream that needs to be recovered or disposed of in an alternative fashion. This will typically include wet and contaminated wastes, some types of plastics, and packaging products made up of composite materials, which cannot be recycled at present. Fluctuations in recyclable markets may at times make recycling certain materials economically and environmentally not the best practicable option. In addition, recycling is not a continuous loop as most materials can only be reprocessed a limited number of times before the quality degrades.

Energy recovery via incineration, pyrolysis, gasification or anaerobic digestion, is the main alternative to landfill for residual wastes. It has been recognised by the Government and the Assembly in their waste strategies that energy from waste can make an important contribution in reducing unacceptable dependence on landfill.

Energy from waste (EfW) is a waste treatment process involving the treatment of waste in carefully controlled conditions. The resulting heat is used to make steam from which electricity is generated. It is also possible to provide district heating by piping the hot water to adjacent properties, directly benefiting the local community. Emission control equipment is provided at these plants to minimise pollution. The electricity demands for one household over one year can be met from the production of energy from approximately one tonne of waste.

Whilst there is no immediate requirement for a large scale EfW plant in Carmarthenshire, increasing volumes of waste, legislation and economic climate may necessitate a genuine need for a thorough examination of suitable options. A review of the situation will be undertaken in 2005 and should EfW be required the Authority undertakes to ensure that all alternative options are given due consideration and a thorough environmental assessment and consultation exercise is undertaken prior to any firm plans being formulated.

The National Assembly has a mandate for sustainability with a general policy against EfW in favour or recycling and composting. This policy is due for review in 2013. This should be taken into account in the Regional Waste Plan, which Carmarthenshire will take full account in the strategy review in 2005.


Table 4-1 below shows the best value performance indicators for Carmarthenshire in 2001 and targets for the next three years. The recycling performance (BV82a) in 2000/01 was above target and in conjunction with composting activity (BV82b) is resulting in a reduced percentage of waste being land-filled which is in line with national waste strategy (80% by 2003). Growth in the waste stream is being experienced; most of this waste is arriving trough Civic amenity sites and is a trend being reported nationally. This is being attributed to a general rise in incomes and the rise of DIY as a hobby.

A small reduction in waste collection costs was achieved during 99/00 through increased trade income and further reductions to the underlying cost of waste collection will be feasible through the availability of transfer stations and enable costs to reduce towards the Welsh Assembly target of £ 25.72. Waste disposal costs (BV 87) increased due to Landfill tax and the need to operate transfer stations. Street cleansing costs remain below the Welsh average.

The national waste strategy will require 25% recycling and composting by the year 2005 and a minimum of 10% by 2003 (BV82a+b). Total collection costs are likely to rise with the introduction of a harmonised receptacle policy and kerbside collection of recyclate. The Welsh Assembly has announced additional funding for such activity from 2002/03. Carmarthenshire County Council is committed to improving recycling rates in the County and to this end, has made a policy agreement with the Assembly to have achieve a 20% recycling rate by 2003/04.

Table Error! Style not defined.-Error! Bookmark not defined.: Best Value Performance Indicators - Carmarthenshire

KPI Ref No.

Performance Indicator


Targets at 2001 / 02 prices







Cost of waste collection per household

£35.41 £35.50

To be deleted by NAW

NAW PI 5.1

Total tonnage of household waste arisings:


(a) % recycled






(b)% composted






(c) % used to recover heat power & other energy sources






(d) % landfilled





Local PI (BV 85)

The cost per kilometre of keeping relevant land, for which the local authority is responsible, clear of litter and refuse

45623 pre 45840 post



Average time taken to remove fly tip (calendar days)

2.86 days

3 days

2.9 days

2.8 days

NAW 5.6 BVPI 88

No. of collections missed per 100,000 collections of household waste





NAW 5.7

% of Population served by a kerbside collection of recyclables





Net cost of cleansing per head of population






Carmarthenshire County Council -Waste Strategy Policies

WS.1 The Authority aims to significantly improve the waste collection services in the County. This will be achieved through provision of wheeled bins for households and refinement of the collection rounds. The Council continue to offer a collection service for bulky materials. For those areas without convenient Civic Amenity Sites, the Council will investigate the provision of new sites.

WS. 2. The Authority will encourage waste reduction and re-use in order to meet Assembly targets. To meet these we need to reduce waste being generated by at least 5% by 2009. This will be undertaken as part of an intensive waste awareness initiative in partnership with schools, community groups, neighbouring local authorities and the Assembly.

WS. 3. The Authority will strive to meet National Assembly recycling targets. A kerbside collection of recyclable materials will be delivered to at least 75% of the population, and will be supported by an improved network of Bring Banks and Civic Amenity Recycling Centres. As planning authority, the Council will support development of recycling facilities where these contribute towards achieving the waste strategy for Carmarthenshire.

WS. 4. The Authority intends to meet National Assembly composting targets. Separate areas for reception of green waste will be provided at all Civic Amenity Sites, and the Council will segregate its own parks and garden waste. A centralised composting facility will be provided to process these materials. Options for a separate kerbside collection of organic household waste and further facilities will be explored.

WS. 5. The Authority will review the need for Energy from Waste, in line with the Regional Waste Plan in 2005. If a need is emerging, the Council will fully explore all opportunities in order to achieve the most suitable option for Carmarthenshire. Any such facilities will incorporate design and monitoring standards that minimise impacts upon the environment.

WS. 6. The amount of waste currently landfilled in Carmarthenshire must be reduced to comply with European Directives and National Legislation. The Authority will seek to replace dependence on landfill with more sustainable options for waste management wherever practicable. As planning authority the Council will make appropriate provision for the disposal of waste, having regard to conformity with the polices and targets of the waste strategy.

WS. 7. The Authority will support an ongoing programme of waste awareness, promotion and publicity amongst the public and local commerce to encourage more sustainable waste and resource management. This will seek to make residents of Carmarthenshire active stakeholders in the management of waste in the county, with a view to building a more sustainable system for the future.

WS. 8. The Authority will continue to facilitate a trade waste service, and will encourage greater understanding of sustainable waste management practices amongst local businesses. This will include waste awareness initiatives and investigating the viability of providing a trade waste recyclables service.

WS. 9. The Authority will enforce its zero tolerance policy towards abandoned vehicles, fly-tipped waste, littering and dog fouling and will prosecute offenders. It will continue to improve the efficiency with which these wastes are cleared.

WS. 10. The Authority will continue to offer a clinical waste collection service to householders. The scheme will strive to offer Best Value to customers through use of a professional contractor.

WS. 11. The Authority is committed to reducing the amount of hazardous household waste entering the general waste stream and being disposed of to landfill. Responsible management of hazardous wastes will be encouraged through waste awareness campaigns, and facilities for the collection of hazardous waste will be provided, where possible, at civic amenity sites.

WS. 12. The Authority is committed to increasing the amount of waste electronic and electrical equipment that is re-used and recycled. The Council will investigate options and potential partners to achieve this.

WS. 13. The Authority will make provision though the Unitary Development Plan for the facilities to implement the waste strategy. The provision of such facilities will be based on the Regional Waste Plan and guiding principles of the proximity principle, a need case, regional self-sufficiency and materials planning considerations.

WS. 14. The Authority will take full account of the proximity principle and Best Practicable Environmental Option when planning transportation of waste materials. Wherever practicable, proposals for alternative to road transport will be preferred where they meet the wider interests of sustainable waste management.

What does all this mean for the householder?

The public can expect to hear more about waste management in the future: As significant stakeholders in the management of waste, the public needs to be made more aware of the issues surrounding waste management and have more opportunities to assist in the sustainable management of waste.

The Authority is striving to make its waste collection, treatment and disposal service cleaner and tidier, more efficient and more sustainable: In areas where access allows, a wheeled bin will be provided for containment of refuse and separate container will be provided for segregation of recyclables. To support the collection network, convenient recycling Bring Banks and Civic Amenity sites will be available for all Carmarthenshire residents.

Recycling will be made more convenient for residents of Carmarthenshire, with at least 70% of residents being provided with a kerbside collection service by 2003/04.

Householder participation is fundamental to the success of any scheme provided: In order to meet our recycling target of 20% by 2003/04, 7 out of 10 householders with a kerbside service need to be remembering to recycle at least half of the time, half of the population need to be taking at least two thirds of their remaining recyclable materials to Bring Banks, and eighty percent of householders disposing of green waste from the garden need to participate in the collection round for green waste, take it to a civic amenity site for central composting or compost the waste at home the majority of the time. In order to achieve higher targets in the longer term, we will need to do better than this.

Public consultation

This summary document is available free of charge to the public and interested bodies from all Council offices and in county libraries. The full technical document is available on request at a cost of XX per paper copy to cover printing charges, or free of charge on CD ROM XX?. It is also available on the internet. address XXX

At the end of each section of the technical document, there are a number of questions for the individual to consider in terms of taking part in the consultation process. These are bought together in a separate questionnaire leaflet which can be obtained from all Council offices and in county libraries. The Authority is keen to receive as many responses to the questionnaire as possible, along with any additional comments about the IWMS. These will all be taken into consideration in the preparation of the final IWMS.

Future Proposals

To further improve recycling and recovery targets in the longer-term, the Authority will look towards separate collection of biodegradable waste for composting or some form of treatment and energy recovery.

The Authority may also need to re-examine the requirement for energy from waste facilities in the County. This is dependent upon future achievements in diverting waste from landfill by waste reduction, reuse, recycling and composting.


The Authority cannot achieve sustainable waste management goals without the help of the public. We consider all members of the public to be stakeholders in environmental management and all equally responsible for building a sustainable future, it is vital to remember that each little bit matters and each individuals' effort counts. The Authority can facilitate by providing and promoting appropriate services but in order for schemes to be effective, householders need to participate and participate effectively. The IWMS includes `do your bit' pointers for the public in each chapter, most of these come down to thinking about what you buy, what you throw away and where you throw it! These are summarised in Section 7.

Partnerships will play a key role in the implementation of this IWMS. The Authority currently has strong functional partnerships with other Local Authorities and with local Community Groups.

In the past the Authority has run joint waste awareness campaigns with neighbouring local authorities and in conjunction with National campaigns in order to ensure delivery of a cohesive message.

Carmarthenshire benefits from a strong sense of community; the Authority works regularly with community forum groups and a citizens panel in order to develop policies and services which, as far as possible meet the needs of the community. The groups are also used to assist in delivery of schemes and initiatives to the wider community. There are a number of independent community organisations working in the County on environmental projects related to waste management and the Council is keen to facilitate these groups wherever possible.

Think Rubbish!

Become more Waste Aware

Remember the `Three R's'

Reduce waste

Shop with waste reduction in mind:

At home:

At Work:


At home:

At work:


Help reduce the environmental impact of waste disposal

Be aware of different waste types

Clinical Waste

Hazardous Waste

Waste Electronic Equipment